On May 23, 2016, India became the fifth nation to successfully conduct the flight demonstration of a scaled down version of a winged-body reusable launch vehicle, thereby validating the critical technologies such as autonomous navigation, guidance & control, reusable thermal protection system and re-entry mission management. This flight represented the first baby step towards the realisation of a future fully reusable Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) space transportation system.
A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) or two-stage rocket launch vehicle is a spacecraft in which two distinct stages provide propulsion consecutively in order to achieve orbital velocity. It is intermediate between a three-stage-to-orbit launcher and a hypothetical single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launcher.
It is a fully reusable Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) Launch Vehicle, that can launch payloads to Low Earth Orbit with 15 times reusability, is expected to reduce the launch cost by approximately 50 - 60% when compared to that of an expendable launch vehicle.